Images 14 & 46. Sahagún, Bernardino De, Creator. General History of the Things of New Spain by Fray Bernardino de Sahagún: The Florentine Codex. Book XI: Natural Things. [Place of Publication Not Identified: Publisher Not Identified, 1577]. https://www.loc.gov/item/2021667856/.
Dating from the colonial period in Spanish America (sixteenth through the early nineteenth centuries).
Responses to the questionnaire provide detailed information about native populations in Spanish America, especially in the colonial centers of Mexico and Peru. They include information on indigenous labor, tribute records, history of disease, native customs, religious practices, herbal medicines, municipal offices held, farm earnings, indigenous justice and law, native towns, class distinctions, and commentaries on caciques and indigenous elites. They also provide information for studies of natural history and the History of Science, maps and cartography, enslaved populations, food history, history of the Church, festive culture, religious celebrations, and many other topics.
The instructions and questions of the Relaciones geográficas are available in published form through I-Share
Maps from the Relaciones geográficas are available in some of the published texts, but also via the World Digital Library
Copies of the Relaciones and Diccionario geográfico de España are available through the Biblioteca Digital del Patrimonio Iberoamericano. Note: the diccionarios deal with Spain and Spanish America
Hathi Trust has the greatest number of published responses to the questionnaire outside of the Archivo General de Indias
Sahagún's twelve-volume study of Nahua (or Aztec) culture and history covers many of the same topics addressed in the Relaciones geográficas. A Franciscan friar and missionary, Sahagún worked with native graduates of the Colegio de Santa Cruz in Tlatelolco to compile an encyclopedic study of Nahua history, traditions, customs, religious practices and beliefs, military training, rhetorical oratory, and many other topics of importance to Nahua communities in central Mexico.
Psalmodia Christiana y Sermonario, in Spanish and Nahuatl, and his La aparición de Ntra. Señora de Guadalupe de México are available in manuscript form through the Biblioteca Digital del Patrimonio Iberoamericano
Siguense veynte y seis addiciones desta postilla, focused on American Indian Histories and Cultures, is available at the Newberry Library
Find published editions of Sahagún’s works through Hathi Trust
Manuscript copies of Sahagún’s Christian instruction can also be found on the World Digital Library. See especially, his Exercises in Nahuatl Taken from the Holy Gospel, available in Latin, Spanish, and Nahuatl and A Sequence of Sermons for Sundays and Saints’ Days, in Spanish and Nahuatl
Indian Annals of Tlatelolco and Mexico from 1473 to 1521. Held at the National Museum of Anthropology, Mexico City
Preserved at the National Library of Paris
Available at the Newberry Library
Available in print via I-Share
Available in print via I-Share
Foreign Relations of the United States is a collection of declassified records from the State Department, CIA, National Security Council, US AID, and other collections of government records on U.S. foreign policy. For a study of U.S. invention in Latin America, it is imperative to consult the FRUCS.
Created with the aim of facilitating access to military dictatorship archives and resistance publications