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General History of the Things of New Spain by Fray Bernardino de Sahagún: The Florentine Codex. Book XI: Natural Things.


Images 14 & 46. Sahagún, Bernardino De, Creator. General History of the Things of New Spain by Fray Bernardino de Sahagún: The Florentine Codex. Book XI: Natural Things. [Place of Publication Not Identified: Publisher Not Identified, 1577].

Colonial Collections

Relaciones geográficas de Indias

Dating from between 1578 and 1586, the Relaciones geográficas are responses to a questionnaire initiated by the Spanish crown in 1577, requesting information about Spanish-held territories in the Americas.

  • The instructions and questions of the Relaciones geográficas are available in published form through I-Share.
  • Maps from the Relaciones geográficas are available in some of the published texts, but also via the World Digital Library.

  • Copies of the Relaciones and Diccionario geográfico de España are available through the Biblioteca Digital del Patrimonio Iberoamericano. Note: the diccionarios deal with Spain and Spanish America.

  • Hathi Trust has the greatest number of published responses to the questionnaire outside of the Archivo General de Indias.

Important Secondary Sources

Bernardino de Sahagún’s sixteenth-century General History of Things in the New World

Bernardino de Sahagún’s Catholic Instruction for Nahuas

Anales de Mexico e Tlatelolco

Anonymous Manuscript of Tlatelolco, 1528

Diego Duran, Historia de las Indias de la Nueva España e Islas de Tierra Firme (Atlas or Codice de Duran)

Chimalpain Quauhtlehuanitzin, Codex Chimalpain, Norman: University of Okalahoma Press, 1997.

Codice Aubin (or Codex 1576): Manuscrito Azteca de la Biblioteca Real de Berlin.

Codice Ramírez.  Relación del origen de los indios que habitan esta Nueva España segun sus historias.” Editial Leyenda, Mexico, 1944.

Fernando de Alva, Ixtlilxochitl, Obras historicas.  2 vols. National University of Mexico, 1975-1977. 

Lienzo de Tlaxcala. Antiguedades mexicanas. Published by Junta Colombina de Mexico. 2 vols. Oficina de la Secretaria de Fomento, Mexico, 1892.  Also, Papel y Cartón, Mexico, 1983.

Diego Muñoz Camargo, Historia de Tlaxcala, Editorial Chavero, Mexico, 1892.

Alvarado F. Tezozomoc, Cronica Mexicana, Ediorial de Vigil, Mexico, 1944.

Cronica mexicayotl. Translated into Spanish by Adrian Leon, Imprenta Universitaria, Mexico, 1975.

Modern Collections

Foreign Relations of the United States

Foreign Relations of the United States is a collection of declassified records from the State Department, CIA, National Security Council, US AID, and other collections of government records on U.S. foreign policy. 

These documents can also be found at the State Department's Office of the Historian

Allende and the Pinochet Coup in Chile

National Security Archive / The Chile Documentation Project

Peter Kornbluh’s The Pinochet File: A Declassified Dossier on Atrocity and Accountability

See also Foreign Relations of the United States