The Census Bureau collects health insurance data using three national surveys: the Current Population Survey's Annual Social and Economic Supplement (CPS ASEC), American Community Survey (ACS), and Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP).
"The Dartmouth Atlas Project has documented glaring variations in how medical resources are distributed and used in the United States. The project uses Medicare data to provide information and analysis about national, regional, and local markets, as well as hospitals and their affiliated physicians."
This site (from USDA) provides access to a large number of food composition databases. Individual databases include information about the sugar, selenium, trans-fatty acid, carotenoid, Vitamin D, and Vitamin K content of selected foods.
Their mission: "to research, develop, and advance sustainable food and agricultural systems that are environmentally sound, economically viable, socially responsible, nonexploitative, and that serve as a foundation for future generations."